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妇产经纬 ǀ PM2.5祸害遗千年--出生缺陷

2018-01-11 10:09:45      人围观

  

        The Journal of Pediatrics

  辛辛那提大学和辛辛那提儿童医院的研究人员发现,临近怀孕前及怀孕初期居住在空气污染地区的女性,其婴儿发生出生缺陷的风险有所增加。

  A team of researchers with the University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Children's Hospital has found evidence that indicates that pre-and post-pregnant women living in an area with air pollution are at an increased risk of giving birth to babies with birth defects. In their paper published in The Journal of Pediatrics, the groups describe the details of their study, what they found, and also offer some advice to pregnant women.

  众所周知,吸入受污染的空气会引起健康问题,尤其是肺部疾病,但在孕期吸入受污染的空气对胎儿或婴儿会产生什么样的影响,目前尚未明确。

  这项最新研究致力于洞悉备孕期及受孕成功后的女性吸入特定污染物(名为“PM2.5”的空气中细颗粒物)对胎儿产生的影响。PM2.5由微小颗粒粒与粒径<2.5微米的水滴组成,主要来源是汽车尾气,吸烟造成的烟雾等。

  Logic suggests that breathing polluted air can cause health problems, particularly lung ailments—less clear is what impact breathing such air during pregnancy might have on babies. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about the impact on babies when pregnant women breathe a particular type of pollution just before and after conception. The team focused on fine particles in the air of a type called PM 2.5. It is made up of tiny particles and water drops smaller than 2.5 microns. A common source is automobile exhaust, but it can also come from smoke and other sources.

  围孕期暴露PM2.5

  研究者搜集了俄亥俄州从2006年到2010年间29万名婴儿的数据,并匹配同一时期该州孕产妇暴露受污染空气的情况进行研究。结果发现,临近怀孕前或怀孕后初期生活在PM2.5含量高于平均值的地区的女性,其婴儿的出生缺陷率较高。

  The team looked at data from 290,000 babies born in the state of Ohio from the years 2006 to 2010 and then compared what they found with measurements taken of air pollution across the state during the same time period.

  They found that those women living in areas with higher than average amounts of such pollutants, just prior to or just after conception, experienced higher rates of birth defects in their babies.

  男婴腹部畸形与尿道下裂

  该研究中所有女性在临近怀孕前以及怀孕初期都被暴露于PM2.5浓度为13.79微克的受污染空气中。进一步研究发现,在受污染检测站方圆5公里内,PM2.5浓度每增加10ug/m3 ,出生缺陷率就会增加19%。同时,研究还发现空气污染会导致一种特定的出生缺陷----男婴腹部畸形和尿道下裂。研究指出,由于这项研究仅局限于女性吸入居家环境中的受污染空气,因此并不包含诸如暴露于工作环境、电脑辐射等的外界因素。但尽管如此,研究者仍建议,想要怀孕或者已经成功受孕的女性,应采取措施保证居家环境中的空气清洁。

  The team found that overall, the women in the study were exposed to 13.79 mcg of PM 2.5 pcm of air (ug/m3) in the months before and after conception. They further found that for women living within 5K of a pollution testing station, for each 10 ug/m3 increase in the particulates, there was an associated 19 percent rise in birth defects. They also found an apparent connection between kinds of birth defects and air pollution— malformations of the abdomen and hypospadias in boys.

  The researchers note that their study was limited to women breathing polluted air while at home and thus did not include such factors as their exposure are work, during commuting, etc. They suggest, however, that their conclusions were strong enough to indicate that women planning to get pregnant, or who have recently become pregnant, take measures to remove air pollutants from their homes.

  摘要全览

  目的:评测围孕期吸入细颗粒物(PM2.5)与出生缺陷风险的关联。方法:收集俄亥俄州卫生部2006至2010年间出生证明,以及来自位于本州的美国环保局57号监测站的PM2.5数据。将孕产妇住址与距离最近的PM2.5监测点相匹配,并计算每月的PM2.5浓度。评估PM2.5浓度增加与出生缺陷之间的关联,同时调整并存危险因素。结果:经由调整共存危险因素外,临近受孕成功前及怀孕初期暴露环境中PM2.5浓度增加与出生缺陷风险存在一定的关联。与围孕期其他暴露窗口期相比,居住在距离监测点较近地区的孕产妇,受孕成功前1个月暴露于PM2.5浓度增加的受污染空气中所导致的的出生缺陷率最高。研究发现,尤其是在受孕成功前1个月的时间里,PM2.5对个体所产生的最强烈的影响是导致胎儿腹壁畸形和尿道下裂。结论:围孕期暴露于PM2.5环境中与出生缺陷存在一定的关联。最关键的暴露期是受孕成功前1个月及怀孕后1个月。由于所有的围孕期女性都或多或少暴露于PM2.5环境中,因此PM2.5暴露与出生缺陷风险增加之间特定的关联性需要进一步行大样本量研究。

  Objective To evaluate the association between increased exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during the periconception period with risk of congenital anomalies.

  Study design Using birth certificate data from the Ohio Department of Health (2006-2010) and PM2.5 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 57 monitoring stations located throughout Ohio, the geographic coordinates of the mother's residence for each birth were linked to the nearest PM2.5 monitoring station and monthly exposure averages were calculated. The association between congenital anomalies and increased PM2.5 levels was estimated, with adjustment for coexistent risk factors. Results After adjustment for coexisting risk factors, exposure to increased levels of PM2.5 in the air during the periconception period was modestly associated with risk of congenital anomalies. Compared with other periconception exposure windows, increased exposure during the 1 month before conception was associated with the highest risk increase at lesser distances from monitoring stations. The strongest influences of PM2.5 on individual malformations were found with abdominal wall defects and hypospadias, especially during the 1-month preconception.Conclusions Increased exposure to PM2.5 in the periconception period is associated with some modest risk increases for congenital malformations. The most susceptible time of exposure appears to be the 1 month before and after conception. Although the increased risk with PM2.5 exposure is modest, the potential impact on a population basis is noteworthy because all pregnant women have some degree of exposure.

  To Cite: Journal of Pediatrics

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